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By Jamal Manassah (Eds.)

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INTRODUCTION The rapid advancement of satellite communications technologies during the past decade has significantly lowered the costs of satellite transmissions and has drastically stimulated and increased the demand for satellite communication service. Consequently, the geostationary orbit is seriously congested with satellites operating in the 6/4-GHz band. To alleviate this problem, three approaches could be taken. The first is to make more spectral resources available for satellite communications by allocation of additional spectrum in the 6/4-GHz band, by use of higher frequency bands such as 14/11 or 30/20 GHz, or by multiple reuse of the same frequency band.

D f vs h , γ = 6. /h 0 =1/2 , CODED QPSK WITH VA DECODING (BUT NO STATE EXTENSION) @ ISI h i / h 0 = 1/2 , CODED QPSK WITH EXTENDED STATE VA DECODING (§> ISI h^hQ =1/6 ,CODED QPSK WITH VA DECODING © ISI h i / h 0 = 1/6, CODED QPSK WITH EXTENDED STATE VA DECODING ι I I I I 8 10 E b / N c (dB) FIGURE 10. Performance of Rate 1/2 QPSK with γ = 2. Coded 12 RUSSELL J. F. FANG 54 TABLE 3. Asymptotic Coding Gain for Rate 1/2 Binary Coded QPSK Signals in Table 2. 98 a very significant coding improvement can be achieved by using the extendedstate VA decoding.

A third grouping comprises methods which attempt to identify patterns which represent the structure of the speech message and transmit the identification of these patterns to the receiver to reconstruct the speech. There remains yet another method to reduce the transmission rate needed to support telephone speech channels. This method, called speech interpola­ tion, exploits the activity patterns which characterize conversations. It is customary for one party in a conversation to remain silent while the other speaks.

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