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By D. Riddoch

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DUAL MECHANISMS OF COGNITIVE CONTROL To emphasize the dynamics of cognitive control processes Todd Braver from Washington University in St. Louis in 2012 described a model of dual mechanisms (Braver, 2012). In this framework, proactive control processes involve early selection, in which goal-relevant information is actively maintained in a sustained manner, prior to the occurrence of cognitively demanding events. Reactive control processes, on the other hand, are late correction mechanisms mobilized only as needed, in a just-in-time manner, such as after a high interference event is detected.

The ex-Gaussian distribution is a convolution of a Gaussian and an exponential distribution. 1 Two models of RT distributions. (a) In the ex-Gaussian approach m and σ describe the mean and SD of the Gaussian component, and τ reflects both the mean and SD of the exponential component. (b)The RT distribution can also be approximated by a log-normal distribution. Attention lapses (eg, in an ADHD subject) add a right “wing” to the distribution at large latencies. 1. METHODS OF ASSESSING NEUROMARKERS Reaction time variability 13 parameter (τ) for the exponential component.

G protein– coupled receptors are neither excitatory nor inhibitory, they modulate the actions of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Most neuroreceptors are G protein coupled. Receptors can be characterized by their affinity and density. Receptors can also be located on the presynaptic membrane as a mechanism for negative feedback and for the reuptake of transmitters. Ligand-gated receptors are the focus of pharmacology. In PET many radioligands—5-HT2 receptor, serotonin transporter, D2 receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), GABA receptors—have been synthesized for studying the receptor systems of the brain.

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