By L. Agrofoglio, S.R. Challand
Interest in chemical entities in a position to blocking off or enhancing telephone metabolism eventually is going again to the invention of the constitution of DNA within the Fifties. realizing of the biochemical tactics fascinated with cellphone metabolism quickly resulted in the concept that compounds should be designed which would intrude with those approaches, and hence may be utilized in the remedy of the illnesses attributable to viral an infection. for the reason that then, a number of periods of substances were found which rely for his or her influence on amendment of the correct functioning of nucleic acids and, with the advent of acyclovir for the remedy of Herpes infections, nucleoside analogues became the cornerstone of antiviral chemotherapy.
The luck of the early nucleoside brokers, the toxicity and metabolic instability of many nucleoside analogues, and the results of viral pathogens on public future health are riding the layout, synthesis and review of latest nucleoside analogues, with a lot realization turning to nucleosides containing `non average' sugar analogues. This booklet makes a speciality of the improvement of those brokers, and attracts jointly all of the on hand fabric in an simply consulted shape, which whilst courses the reader into the examine literature at the topic. Written essentially for the medicinal chemist, insurance comprises either man made options and description assistance at the major developments in organic task. specific cognizance is interested in the comparability of man-made routes to compounds with their ordinary analogues. ultimately, the $64000 antiviral actions of the compounds are taken care of, together with anti-retrovirus, anti-hepadnavirus and anti-herpes virus houses.
Written almost always for medicinal chemists within the pharmaceutical and artificial natural chemists in academe, this publication can also be beautiful to researchers in associations targeting mobile metabolism. complex scholars of natural chemistry will locate the transparent dialogue of the bogus options followed within the improvement of those compounds an invaluable advent to this intriguing and not easy area.
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Additional resources for Acyclic, Carbocyclic and L-Nucleosides
21). Kobe et al.  have reported the synthesis of N 2-acetylacyclovir (150) as well as 6-deoxyacyclovir (142) as prodrugs. 22). Different conditions of deacetylation gave selectively either the desired O-deacetylated N 2-acetylacyclovir (150), acyclovir itself, or O-acetylated acyclovir (151). 6-Deoxyacyclovir (142) was obtained from the same starting material by chlorination of the 6- 49 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACYCLIC NUCLEOSIDES ~N 1. H,O· HN~. Jl ~ NHAC~N I N 150 CH,oCH2CH,oH 78% 5% NaOH, H,o, rt, 2 h or pyrrolidine, rt, 2h or glycol, reflux, 2h 100% 97% 37·66% 1.
17 with 4-aminobutanol, as shown in Scheme LI8. The compounds did not show any significant anti-viral or cytotoxic activity. Some purine carba-acyclic nucleosides were prepared by Yuan et al. 19. 14 [a] H,N ~1i N 128 NH, + Br, /0, 'V" o /"-.. 18 133aR=OH b R = NH, 45 46 ACYCLIC, CARBOCYCLIC AND L-NUCLEOSIDES NL HN~JlCI • + NL n-BuOH RNH. , H+ HN~JlNHR • O-SOC 135 CI Zn,H+ ~ I HN~N • NL~ (EtO),CH, N : x NH. AcNMe. l. 5 Prodrugs and other derivatives of acyclovir Acyclovir is a highly selective inhibitor of HSV -1 and 2 replication.
12 with NaOMe gave 79. The latter was smoothly converted into the 4-amino-I-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (80). Alternatively, 80 could be obtained directly from 81 by treatment with hydrogen peroxide under basic conditions. Finally, the thiocarboxamide 82, obtained from 79 by treatment with hydrogen sulphide afforded 4-amino-3-cyano-l-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (83), when subjected to desulfurization with mercuric chloride. Townsend et at.