By John Bryan Holds MD
Information the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the evaluate and administration of orbital and eyelid problems, together with malpositions and involutional adjustments. Updates present info on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and anxious stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key elements of orbital, eyelid and facial surgical procedure. comprises a variety of new colour photos. significant revision 2011-2012.
Read or Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course) PDF
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Extra resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Genera ll y, exorbitism and hype rtelorism refer to congen ita l ab normali ties. Telecanthus re fers to a wide intercanthal dista nce. The eye may also be displaced verticall y (hyperglobus or hypoglobus) or horizontally by an orb ital mass. Retrodisp lacemen t of the eye into the orbit, called enophthalmos, may occur as a result of vo lume expansion of the orbi t (fracture), in asso ciation wi th orbital varix, or secondary to sclerosi ng orbita l tumors (eg, metastatic breast carcinoma). CHAPTER 2: Evaluation of Orbital Disorders.
Secondary anophthalmia is rare and lethal and results from a gross abnormality in the anterior neural tube. Consecutive anophthalmia presumably results fro m a secondary degeneration of the optic vesicle. Because orbital development is dependent on the size and growth of the globe, anophthalmic orbits are small, with hypoplastic eyelids and orbital adnexal structures. Microphthalmia Microphthalmia is much more common than anophthalmia and is defined as the presence of a small eye. Eyes vary in size depending on the severity of the defect.
The ethmoid air cells are thin-wall ed cavities that lie between the medial orbital wall and the lateral wall of the nose. They are present at birth and expand as the child grows. Ethmoid air cells can extend in to th e fronta l, lacrimal, and maxillary bones and may extend into the orbital roof (supraorbital ethmoids). The numero us small, thin -walled air cells of the ethmo id sinus are divided into anter io r, m iddle, and posterior. The an terior and middle air cells dra in into the middle meatus; the posterior air cells, into the superior Figure 1-10 Relationship of the orbits to the paranasal sinuses: FS, frontal sinus; ES, ethmoid sinus; MS, maxillary sinus; 55, sphenoid sinus.